2014-02-01

I'm being laid off ...

... so I'm looking for work. Though I've been a programmer most of my professional life, I've spent the last four years doing document schema design and ontology. I have survived quite a lot of generations of programming technologies, so I am nothing if not adaptable. For any given tech-of-the-moment, my answer is "I may not know it yet, but I will know it very quickly."

If you, my readers, know of anything either in New York City or its environs, or in telecommuting land (I've been working mostly-at-home for the last four years, and especially in the past year), I would certainly like to hear about it. Here's my resume in Word and PDF formats, and you can contact me at cowan@ccil.org.

2014-01-07

U.K. Whacking Latin Keyboard for Windows

I'm announcing my UK Whacking Latin family of keyboard drivers for Windows.  They allow you to type more than 900 different Unicode characters, without interfering substantially with the regular use of a UK keyboard.  The way in which the additional non-ASCII characters are reached is by using the AltGr key.

The keyboards are designed for people who use the regular or extended UK keyboard heavily, but occasionally need to type other Latin letters (especially accented ones), symbols, and punctuation.  In particular, the keyboard supports the Windows-1252 (U.S. and Western Europe) repertoire, as well as almost every Latin letter in Unicode.

This keyboard handles only the extended Latin alphabet.  If you want a regular Greek, Russian Cyrillic, or full IPA keyboard, I recommend the standard Microsoft Greek keyboard, the Russian Phonetic YaWert keyboard, and the Benct X-Sampa keyboard respectively.

If you want a similar keyboard driver for the US physical keyboard, use my Moby Latin keyboard driver instead.

There are two basic ways to type characters other than the regular ASCII set. A few characters are directly typed by holding down AltGr and pressing another key.  For example, to type the character æ, simply type AltGr+a.  As you might expect, the capital version Æ is typed as AltGr+Shift+a.  However, the great majority of characters are typed using AltGr plus some key, followed by another key that doesn't use AltGr. For example, the letter a with diaeresis (ä) is typed with AltGr+; (that is, AltGr plus semicolon) followed by a, or by A if you want the capital a with diaeresis (Ä).

Combinations like AltGr+; are known as "dead keys", because they appear to be dead when you type them; you need to press a following key to actually input a character.  The current version, F, of the Whacking Latin keyboard has a total of 33 dead keys.  23 specific accent marks and modifying strokes are provided, as well as curly quotation marks and other punctuation, math symbols, Roman numerals, fractions, arrows, pointing hands, math Greek letters and symbols (no accents), obscure Latin letters, and a subset of IPA letters needed for English.  (Some math symbols were taken from the space cadet keyboard.)  Some of these dead keys are typed using AltGr+Shift, which makes them a little awkward to type, but they are intended to be as easy to remember as possible.

Update: There are four variants in the Whacking Latin family:  Whacking John, which is meant for English only; Whacking Sandy, which is meant for English and Scottish Gaelic; Whacking Mick, which is meant for English and Irish; and Whacking Taffy, which is meant for English and Welsh.  They all have the same repertoire of characters, but the last three variants make it easier to type texts in those specific languages.  Whacking John is upward compatible with Microsoft's UK keyboard, and Whacking Sandy with Microsoft's UK Extended keyboard, except for the AltGr combinations on those keyboards.

These keyboards and the associated documentation are Open Source, and may be freely copied and modified.  The license terms for all is the MIT License.  Use, share, and enjoy!

2013-11-16

How many languages is that?


Serbo-Croat? Serbian? Croatian? Bosnian? Montenegrin? How many languages is that?  Saying that there are four languages, or that there is one, are both oversimplifications. Here's an approximation of the whole truth:

 In the linguist's sense, there is just a single language, a South Slavic dialect continuum with a dozen or more dialects and  four standardized forms. However, Standard Serbo-Croat, which prevailed until 1989, was never a single standard.  Rather, it was a fusion of two existing standards, an agreement that Standard Croatian and Standard Serbian (both of which already existed) would be treated as equally acceptable for all purposes. In this way it is like the position of Standard Bokmål and Standard Nynorsk in Norway, and like what would be the case if British society decided to accept Standard American English as a written standard with a status equal to Standard British English, or vice versa. It is that agreement which came apart when Yugoslavia did, and it has been followed by the creation of a third standard for Bosnian and a fourth one for Montenegrin.

All four standard languages are founded on the historic dialect of Eastern Hercegovina, an instance of the neo-Štokavian macro-dialect which is now the most widely spoken variety of naš jezik 'our language', as it is politely called, in the whole of the former Yugoslavia. (Macro-dialects are conventionally labeled by the word they use for 'what?' — in this case, što.) They differ roughly as follows:

  • Standard Croatian employs exclusively Ijekavian forms (that is, the descendant of historic jat vowels is ije), admits influences from the Chakavian and Kajkavian macro-dialects, is relatively hostile to Western loanwords and does not normally respell the ones it accepts, and is written exclusively in the Latin script.

  • Standard Serbian allows either Ijekavian or Ekavian forms, has no such influences from the other macro-dialects, is relatively friendly to Western loanwords and respells the ones it accepts to match Serbian pronunciation conventions, and is written with equal acceptability in the Latin and Cyrillic scripts.

  • Standard Bosnian is close to Standard Serbian, has some influences from the palaeo-Shtokavian macro-dialect, is exclusively Ijekavian, and uses the Latin script only.

  • Standard Montenegrin is even closer to Standard Serbian, but it uses the Latin script only and is exclusively Ijekavian.

There are also many differences in vocabulary, on about the same scale as the differences between British and American English.

My understanding is essentially dependent on the work of Miro Kačić, the Croatian linguist (in both senses of that term). While highly respected, Kačić's work is of course controversial, like everything else about the language he worked on.

2013-09-07

U.S. Moby Latin Keyboard for Windows

I'm announcing my U.S. Moby Latin keyboard driver for Windows.  It allows you to type more than 900 different Unicode characters, without interfering substantially with the regular use of a U.S. keyboard.  The way in which the additional non-ASCII characters are reached is by using the AltGr key.  (Not too many keyboards actually have this key, but its equivalent is the right-hand Alt key, or on keyboards without a right-hand Alt key, using the Ctrl and Alt keys at the same time.)

The keyboard is designed for people who use the regular U.S. keyboard heavily, but occasionally need to type other Latin letters (especially accented ones), symbols, and punctuation.  In particular, the keyboard supports the Windows-1252 (U.S. and Western Europe) repertoire, as well as almost every Latin letter in Unicode.

This keyboard handles only the extended Latin alphabet.  If you want a regular Greek, Russian Cyrillic, or full IPA keyboard, I recommend the standard Microsoft Greek keyboard, the Russian Phonetic YaWert keyboard, and the Benct X-Sampa keyboard respectively.

If you want a Moby-style keyboard driver for the U.K. physical keyboard, use my Whacking Latin keyboard driver instead.

There are two basic ways to type characters other than the regular ASCII set. A few characters are directly typed by holding down AltGr and pressing another key.  For example, to type the character æ, simply type AltGr+a.  As you might expect, the capital version Æ is typed as AltGr+Shift+a.  However, the great majority of characters are typed using AltGr plus some key, followed by another key that doesn't use AltGr. For example, the letter a with diaeresis (ä) is typed with AltGr+; (that is, AltGr plus semicolon) followed by a, or by A if you want the capital a with diaeresis (Ä).

Combinations like AltGr+; are known as "dead keys", because they appear to be dead when you type them; you need to press a following key to actually input a character.  The current version, C, of the Moby Latin keyboard has a total of 33 dead keys.  23 specific accent marks and modifying strokes are provided, as well as curly quotation marks and other punctuation, math symbols, Roman numerals, fractions, arrows, pointing hands, math Greek letters and symbols (no accents), obscure Latin letters, and a subset of IPA letters needed for English.  (Some math symbols were taken from the space cadet keyboard.)  Some of these dead keys are typed using AltGr+Shift, which makes them a little awkward to type, but they are intended to be as easy to remember as possible.

This keyboard and the associated documentation are Open Source, and may be freely copied and modified.  The license terms for both is the MIT License.  Use, share, and enjoy!

2013-01-02

A Tolkien Virgin

Back in 1999-2002, starting before the Peter Jackson films had appeared, a blogger named Mark-Edmond Howell undertook to read the whole of The Silmarillion, The Hobbit, and The Lord of the Rings in that order and to write chapter-by-chapter commentary in Tolkien Online as he went.  As he himself says, he had started The Hobbit some years before but not gotten very far into it, and was vaguely aware of some of the pre-Jackson films.  While theonering.net has undertaken to lovingly preserve A Tolkien Virgin, their index is in reverse order of posting (which sometimes differs slightly from book order), and is chopped up arbitrarily, making it hard to navigate.  As a public service, therefore, I am providing this organized and properly ordered table of contents to A Tolkien Virgin, using chapter titles rather than numbers in all cases (Book IV, Chapter 4, what's that?  "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit", ahhhh!)  Share and enjoy.  And as Mark-Edmond says, keep thinking!

Introductory
The Silmarillion
The Hobbit

Note that some commentaries cover two or even three chapters.
The Fellowship of the Ring
The Return of the King
    There is room for vast amounts of meta-commentary here.  Let me just point to Mark-Edmond's fascination with Círdan the Shipwright, and how satisfying he finds it that Círdan reappears at the end.

    2012-11-25

    The Nasochron


    Here is Christian Morgenstern's lovely poem "Das Nasobēm", which was written around 1895 and is usually called a nonsense poem, though not in the sense of "'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves ..."  Indeed, all the words in it make plain sense except one; the nonsense comes in from the fact that once you have read the poem, you still know nothing about the animal.

    Auf seinen Nasen schreitet
    Striding on its noses
    einher das Nasobēm,
    there comes the Nasobame
    von seinem Kind begleitet.
    with its child in tow.
    Es steht noch nicht im Brehm.
    It isn't yet in Brehm's [encyclopedia of zoology].

    Es steht noch nicht im Meyer.
    It isn't yet in Meyer's [encyclopedia]
    Und auch im Brockhaus nicht.
    And also not in Brockhaus's [encyclopedia]
    Es trat aus meiner Leyer
    It trotted out of my lyre
    zum ersten Mal ans Licht.
    when it first came to light.

    Auf seinen Nasen schreitet
    Striding on its noses
    (wie schon gesagt) seitdem,
    on it, as I've said above,
    von seinem Kind begleitet,
    with its young in tow,
    einher das Nasobēm.
    there goes the nasobame.

    And here's my translation of it, which I put together in a few minutes today.


    On all its noses striding,
    Here comes the Nasochron.
    Its child so gently guiding
    'S not drawn by Audubon.

    You won't find it in Brockhaus
    Or Britannica Online,
    I found it in this schlock-house
    I'm pleased to call my mind.

    On all its noses striding
    (As I have said anon)
    Its child so gently guiding
    Here comes the Nasochron.


    There are said to be poetic translations by G.G. Simpson and L.Chadwick.  I haven't read them.

    2012-06-08

    Programming languages, their implementation strategies, and their communities

    Programming languages can be divided into three groups based on their implementation strategies:

    A) Multiple competing implementations, relatively small standard libraries, many third-party libraries available. C, C++, Cobol, Fortran, JavaScript use strategy A.

    B) A single dominant implementation which comes with a fairly large library which everybody uses; typically there is no formal standardization. Substantial third-party libraries may or may not be available. Second-source implementations are continually playing catch-up with the dominant version. Ada, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby use strategy B. So do most DSLs, research languages, and personal toys. Haskell used to be strategy C but is now B due to the increasing dominance of GHC.

    C) Multiple implementations, relatively small standard libraries, each implementation comes with lots of libraries. Substantial third-party librarys may or may not be available. The Lisp languages use strategy C; so do Forth, ML, and the Posix shell.

    Common Lisp and the shell have fairly large standard libraries (for the shell, it's the Posix utilities that constitute the library); R5RS Scheme and even R6RS Scheme have fairly small ones. When the R7RS Scheme process is complete, the relative sizes in the Lisp world will be R5RS < R7RS-small < R6RS < Common Lisp < R7RS-large, but the standard libraries of R7RS-large will be optional for conformance rather than mandatory, so Common Lisp may still be larger in practice.

    In a strategy C language, an implementation is more than just an implementation; it's a community, or even a movement. Strategy A languages don't draw this sort of loyalty for the most part; decisions between implementations are based only on cost, or else technical criteria such as speed, space, compilation speed, or availability in a particular environment. Strategy B languages have only one community per language, with a few splinter groups; that's what makes them such juggernauts today.

    But to write your code for Chicken or Racket or Chibi Scheme involves more than a cold-blooded decision about the advantages of these particular environments. Technical factors may control the choice in some circumstances. But where they don't, people end up deciding based on essentially tribal factors, the same that make people fanatically loyal to vi or Emacs (or, in my case, "ex").

    That's not necessarily a bad thing. But it would be a good thing, unqualified, if some of the library code available to Chicken programmers was also directly available, without fuss, to Racket or even Chibi Scheme programmers. Essentially everything new in R7RS-small is in pursuit of that goal one way or another. Likewise, the packages in R7RS-large (which is not yet fully specified) are meant to help at a higher level with that interoperability goal.

    2012-04-05

    Concurrency vs. parallelism


    Parallelism refers to physically simultaneous execution.  When you raise both arms above your head, you do so in parallel.  Nothing can be more parallel than the number of execution agents simultaneously available: on an 8-core system, you can add up 8 rows of a matrix in parallel, but not 16 rows.  Furthermore, some problems cannot be parallelized, whereas others can be executed entirely in parallel, and there are many cases in between.
    Concurrency refers to conceptually simultaneous execution.  When you juggle balls, you are executing a concurrent program: despite appearances,jugglers only throw or catch one ball at a time.  A concurrent program can execute on a single execution agent, on as many agents as it has concurrent components, or anything in between, so concurrency does not depend on parallelism.  We usually speak of concurrency when there is interaction between the concurrent components.
    Flow-based programming, of which a shell pipeline is the most familiar example, is based on the concurrent execution of mostly isolated processes that communicate via flows.  Because the individual components are isolated, they may be executed in parallel or not.  Because there are no constraints on what components may do with their inputs, parallel execution may or may not actually speed up the computation.

    2012-01-18

    Schleicher's Fable in Lojban


    Here's a version of Schleicher's Fable in Lojban with word-by-word glosses (note the use of letters as pronouns).  You can see Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit versions at Memiyawanzi.

    pa lanme .e ci xirma
    one sheep and three horse

    pa lanme poi claxu loi sunla cu viska ci xirma
    one sheep such:that lack a:mass:of wool (-) see three horse

    .i pa ri cu lacpu pa tilju carce
    (-) one:of the:latter (-) pull one heavy cart

    .i pa ra bevri loi barda
    (-) one:of the:previous carry a:mass:of heavy-thing

    .i pa ra sutra bevri pa nanmu
    (-) one:of the:previous quick carry one man

    .i ly. cusku fi ci xy. fe lu
    (-) S. say to three H. (-) quote

    le risna cu se cortu ri'a lo nu viska pa nanmu poi sazri xy. li'u
    the heart (-) PASV hurt because:of a/some event:of see one man such:that operate H. unquote

    .i ci xy. cusku lu
    (-) three H. say quote

    doi lanme ko jundi
    O sheep you-IMPV pay:attention

    .i le risna cu se cortu ri'a lo nu viska la'e di'e
    (-) the heart (-) PASV hurt because:of event:of see referent:of following:utterance

    .i tu'a pa turni nanmu cu zbasu lo sunla be ly. binxo lo se dasni be ny.
    (-) (-) one govern man (-) make a/some wool of S. become a/some PASV wear [i.e. worn thing] of M.

    .i je ly. claxu sy. li'u
    (-) and S. lack W. unquote

    .i ly. jimpe la'e di'u
    (-) S. comprehend referent:of preceding:utterance

    .i je ba bo rivbi klama le pintu'a
    (-) and then (-) escape go:to the plain [lit. flat=parcel:of:land]

    The Lojbanists I checked this with don't understand why the sheep flees, since he has already been shorn.  Does anyone have any idea?

    2011-11-29

    John McCarthy's theorem prover

    John McCarthy, the inventor of Lisp, died last month.  The new R7RS Scheme standard will be dedicated to his memory.  As another dedication, I thought I'd resurrect his theorem prover, which was published in the Lisp 1.5 manual, and translate it into Scheme. Comments in square brackets are mine; everything else is McCarthy's.

    When this code was written, I was still in diapers and a lot of you probably didn't even exist — and yet it only needed indentation, a few changes from cond to if (which helped with the indentation), and a sprinkling of question marks. It's interesting that this Lisp is so old that () is not identical to #f. The procedure names suck and should be replaced with better names (ending in question marks).

    ;;; We define a function "(theorem s)" whose value is truth
    ;;; or falsity according to whether the sequent "s" is a theorem.
    ;;; A sequent is represented by the following S-expression:
    ;;;     (arrow (term term ...) (term term ...))
    ;;; Atomic propositional formulae are represented as symbols.
    ;;; Other propositional formulae are represented as lists whose
    ;;; first symbols are "not", "and", "or", "implies", or "equiv".
    ;;; Example: (arrow (and (not p) (not q))) (equiv p q) (or r s))).
    
    ;;; The procedure "theorem" is given in terms of auxiliary
    ;;; functions as follows:
    
    (define (theorem s) (th1 '() '() (cadr s) (caddr s)))
    
    (define (th1 a1 a2 a c)
      (if (null? a)
          (th2 a1 a2 '() '() c)
          (or (member? (car a) c)
              (if (atom? (car a)
                         (th1 (if (member? (car a) a1) a1
                                  (cons (car a) a1)) a2 (cdr a) c))
                  (th1 a1 (if (member? (car a) a2) a2
                              (cons (car a) a2)) (cdr a) c)))))
    
    (define (th2 a1 a2 c1 c2 c)
      (cond
       ((null? c) (th a1 a2 c1 c2))
       ((atom? (car c)) (th2 a1 a2 (if (member? (car c) c1)
                                       c1
                                       (cons (car c) c1))) c2 (cdr c))
       (else (th2 a1 a2 c1
                  (if (member?
                       (car c) c2) c2 (cons (car c) c2))
                  (cdr c)))))
    
    (define (th a1 a2 c1 c2)
      (if
       (null? a2) (and (not (null? c2))
                       (thr (car c2) a1 a2 c1 (cdr c2)))
       (thl (car a2) c1 (cdr a2) c1 c2)))
    
    ;;; "th" is the main predicate through which all the recursions
    ;;; take place.  "theorem", "th1", and "th2" break up and sort
    ;;; the information in the sequent for the benefit of "th".
    ;;; The fourarguments of "th" are:
    ;;;     a1: atomic formulae on left side of arrow
    ;;;     a2: other formulae on left side of arrow
    ;;;     c1: atomic formulae on right side of arrow
    ;;;     c1: other formulae on right side of arrow
    
    ;;; The atomic formulae are kept separate from the others in
    ;;; order to make faster the detection of the occurrence of
    ;;;  formulae on both sides of the arrow and the finding of
    ;;; the next formulato reduce.  Each use of "th" represents
    ;;; one reduction according to one of the 10 rules.
    ;;; The formula to be reduced is chosen from the left side
    ;;; of the arrow if possible.  According to whether the
    ;;; formula to be reduced is on the left or the right we use
    ;;; "thl" or "thr".  We have:
    
    (define (thl u a1 a2 c1 c2)
      (case (car u)
        ((not) (th1r (cadr u) a1 a2 c1 c2))
        ((and) (th2l (cdr u) a1 a2 c1 c2))
        ((or) (and (th1l (cadr u) a1 a2 c1 c2)
                   (th1l (caddr u) a1 a2 c1 c2)))
        ((implies) (and (th1l (caddr u) a1 a2 c1
                              c2) (th1r (cadr u) a1 a2 c1 c2)))
        ((equiv) (and (th2l (cdr u) a1 a2 c1 c2)
                      (th2r (cdr u) a1 a2 c1 c2)))
        (else (error "thl: unknown operator" u a1 a2 c1 c2))))
    
    (define (thr u a1 a2 c1 c2)
      (case (car u)
        ((not) (th1l (cadr u) a1 a2 c1 c2))
        ((and) (and (th1r (cadr u) a1 a2 c1 c2)
                    (th1r (caddr u) a1 a2 c1 c2)))
        ((or) (th2r (cdr u) a1 a2 c1 c2))
        ((equiv) (and (th11 (cadr u) (caddr u) a1 a2 c1 c2)
                      (th11 (caddr u) (cadr u) a1 a2 c1 c2)))
        (else (error "thr: unknown operator" u a1 a2 c1 c2))))
    
    ;;; The functions "th1l", "th1r", "th2l", "th2r", "th11"
    ;;; distribute the parts of the reduced formula to the
    ;;; appropriate places in the reduced sequent.
    ;;; These functions are:
    
    (define (th1l v a1 a2 c1 c2)
      (if
       (atom? v) (or (member? v c1)
                     (th (cons v a1) a2 c1 c2))
       (or (member? v c2) (th a1 (cons v a2) c1 c2))))
    
    (define (th1r v a1 a2 c1 c2)
      (if
       (atom? v) (or (member? v a1)
                     (th a1 a2 (cons v c1) c2))
       (or (member? v c2) (th a1 (cons v a2) c1 c2))))
    
    (define (th2l v a1 a2 c1 c2)
      (cond
       ((atom? (car v)) (or (member? (car v) c1)
                            (th1l (cadr v) (cons (car v) a1) a2 c1 c2)))
       (else (or (member? (car v) c2) (th1l (cadr v) a1 (cons (car v)
                                                              a2) c1 c2)))))
    
    (define (th2r v a1 a2 c1 c2)
      (if
       (atom? (car v)) (or (member? (car v) a1)
                           (th1r (cadr v) a1 a2 (cons (car v) c1) c2))
       (or (member? (car v) a2) (th1r (cadr v) a1 a2 c1
                                           (cons (car v) c2)))))
    
    (define (th11 v1 v2 a1 a2 c1 c2)
      (cond
       ((atom? v1) (or (member? v1 c1) (th1r v2 (cons v1 a1) a2 c1 c2)))
       (else (or (member? v1 c2) (th1r v2 a1 (cons v1 a2) c1 c2)))))
    
    ;;; Finally, the function "member?" is defined by
    
    (define (member? x u)
      (or (and (not (null? u))
               (equal? x (car u))) (member? x (cdr u))))
    
    ;;; [Note: This function is not the same as "member", because
    ;;; it returns #t rather than a tail of the list on success.
    ;;; The "atom?" function is defined as in Lisp 1.5.]
    
    (define (atom? x) (not (pair? x)))
    
    ;;; Example:  (theorem '(arrow (p) (or p q))) => #t
    ;;; because given p, we can infer p v q.
    

    2011-09-30

    Samuel Beckett's mathematical nightmare

    From Beckett's early novel Molloy, later reprinted separately under the title of "Sucking-Stones".  I have introduced paragraphing for readability, though in Beckett's text this is just part of a huge 80-page paragraph, one of only two in Molloy's monologue.  Reprinted without permission.


    I took advantage of being at the seaside to lay in a store of sucking-stones. They were pebbles but I call them stones. Yes, on this occasion I laid in a considerable store. I distributed them equally between my four pockets, and sucked them turn and turn about. This raised a problem which I first solved in the following way. I had say sixteen stones, four in each of my four pockets these being the two pockets of my trousers and the two pockets of my greatcoat.

    Taking a stone from the right pocket of my greatcoat, and putting it in my mouth, I replaced it in the right pocket of my greatcoat by a stone from the right pocket of my trousers, which I replaced by a stone from the left pocket of my trousers, which I replaced by a stone from the left pocket of my greatcoat, which I replaced by the stone which was in my mouth, as soon as I had finished sucking it. Thus there were still four stones in each of my four pockets, but not quite the same stones. And when the desire to suck took hold of me again, I drew again on the right pocket of my greatcoat, certain of not taking the same stone as the last time.  And while I sucked it I rearranged the other stones in the way I have just described. And so on.

    But this solution did not satisfy me fully. For it did not escape me that, by an extraordinary hazard, the four stones circulating thus might always be the same four. In which case, far from sucking the sixteen stones turn and turn about, I was really only sucking four, always the same, turn and turn about. But I shuffled them well in my pockets, before I began to suck, and again, while I sucked, before transferring them, in the hope of obtaining a more general circulation of the stones from pocket to pocket. But this was only a makeshift that could not long content a man like me. So I began to look for something else.

    And the first thing I hit upon was that I might do better to transfer the stones four by four, instead of one by one, that is to say, during the sucking, to take the three stones remaining in the right pocket of my greatcoat and replace them by the four in the right pocket of my trousers , and these by the four in the left pocket of my trousers, and these by the four in the left pocket of my greatcoat, and finally these by the three from the right pocket of my greatcoat, plus the one, as soon as I had finished sucking it, which was in my mouth.  Yes, it seemed to me at first that by so doing I would arrive at a better result.

    But on further reflection I had to change my mind and confess that the circulation of the stones four by four came to exactly the same thing as their circulation one by one. For if I was certain of finding each time, in the right pocket of my greatcoat, four stones totally different from their immediate predecessors, the possibility nevertheless remained of my always chancing on the same stone, within each group of four, and consequently of my sucking, not the sixteen turn and turn about as I wished, but in fact four only, always the same, turn and turn about. So I had to seek elswhere than in the mode of circulation. For no matter how I caused the stones to circulate, I always ran the same risk.

    It was obvious that by increasing the number of my pockets I was bound to increase my chances of enjoying my stones in the way I planned, that is to say one after the other until their number was exhausted. Had I had eight pockets, for example, instead of the four I did have, then even the most diabolical hazard could not have prevented me from sucking at least eight of my sixteen stones, turn and turn about. The truth is I should have needed sixteen pockets in order to be quite easy in my mind. And for a long time I could see no other conclusion than this, that short of having sixteen pockets, each with its stone, I could never reach the goal I had set myself, short of an extraordinary hazard. And if at a pinch I could double the number of my pockets, were it only by dividing each pocket in two, with the help of a few safety-pins let us say, to quadruple them seemed to be more than I could manage. And I did not feel inclined to take all that trouble for a half-measure.

    For I was beginning to lose all sense of measure, after all this wrestling and wrangling, and to say, All or nothing. And if I was tempted for an instant to establish a more equitable proportion between my stones and my pockets , by reducing the former to the number of the latter, it was only for an instant. For it would have been an admission of defeat. And sitting on the shore, before the sea, the sixteen stones spread out before my eyes, I gazed at them in anger and perplexity.  For just as I had difficulty in sitting in a chair, or in an arm-chair, because of my stiff leg, you understand, so I had none in sitting on the ground, because of my stiff leg and my stiffening leg, for it was about this time that my good leg, good in the sense that it was not stiff, began to stiffen.  I needed a prop under the ham you understand, and even under the whole length of the leg, the prop of the earth.  And while I gazed thus at my stones, revolving interminable martingales all equally defective, and crushing handfuls of sand, so that the sand ran through my fingers and fell back on the strand, yes, while thus I lulled my mind and part of my body, one day suddenly it dawned on me, dimly, that I might perhaps achieve my purpose without increasing the number of my pockets, or reducing the number of my stones, but simply by sacrificing the principle of trim.

    The meaning of this illumination, which suddenly began to sing within me, like a verse of Isaiah, or of Jeremiah, I did not penetrate at once, and notably the word trim, which I had never met with, in this sense, long remained obscure. Finally I seemed to grasp that this word trim could not here mean anything else, anything better, than the distribution of the sixteen stones in four groups of four, one group in each pocket, and that it was my refusal to consider any distribution other than this that had vitiated my calculations until then and rendered the problem literally insoluble. And it was on the basis of this interpretation, whether right or wrong, that I finally reached a solution, inelegant assuredly, but sound, sound.

    Now I am willing to believe, indeed I firmly believe, that other solutions to this problem might have been found and indeed may still be found, no less sound, but much more elegant than the one I shall now describe, if I can.  And I believe too that had I been a little more insistent, a little more resistant, I could have found them myself.  But I was tired, but I was tired, and I contented myself ingloriously with the first solution that was a solution, to this problem.  But not to go over the heartbreaking stages through which I passed before I came to it here it is, in all its hideousness.

    All (all!) that was necessary was to put, for example, six stones in the right pocket of my greatcoat, or supply pocket, five in the right pocket of my trousers, and five in the left pocket of my trousers, that makes the lot, twice five ten plus six sixteen, and none, for none remained, in the left pocket of my greatcoat, which for the time being remained empty, empty of stones that is, for its usual contents remained, as well as occasional objects.  For where do you think I hid my vegetable knife, my silver, my horn and the other things that I have not yet named, perhaps shall never name.  Good. Now I can begin to suck. Watch me closely. I take a stone from the right pocket of my greatcoat , suck it, stop sucking it, put it in the left pocket of my greatcoat, the one empty (of stones). I take a second stone from the right pocket of my greatcoat, suck it put it in the left pocket of my greatcoat. And so on until the right pocket of my greatcoat is empty (apart from its usual and casual contents) and the six stones I have just sucked, one after the other, are all in the left pocket of my greatcoat.

    Pausing then, and concentrating, so as not to make a balls of it, I transfer to the right pocket of my greatcoat, in which there are no stones left, the five stones in the right pocket of my trousers, which I replace by the five stones in the left pocket of my trousers, which I replace by the six stones in the left pocket of my greatcoat. At this stage then the left pocket of my greatcoat is again empty of stones, while the right pocket of my greatcoat is again supplied, and in the vright way, that is to say with other stones than those I have just sucked. These other stones I then begin to suck, one after the other, and to transfer as I go along to the left pocket of my greatcoat, being absolutely certain, as far as one can be in an affair of this kind, that I am not sucking the same stones as a moment before, but others.

    And when the right pocket of my greatcoat is again empty (of stones), and the five I have just sucked are all without exception in the left pocket of my greatcoat, then I proceed to the same redistribution as a moment before, or a similar redistribution, that is to say I transfer to the right pocket of my greatcoat, now again available, the five stones in the right pocket of my trousers, which I replace by the six stones in the left pocket of my trousers, which I replace by the five stones in the left pocket of my greatcoat. And there I am ready to begin again. Do I have to go on? No, for it is clear that after the next series, of sucks and transfers, I shall be back where I started, that is with the first six stones back in the supply pocket, the next five in the right pocket of my stinking old trousers and finally the last five in left pocket of same, and my sixteen stones will have been sucked once at least in impeccable succession, not one sucked twice, not one left unsucked.

    It is true that next time I could scarcely hope to suck my stones in the same order as the first time and that the first, seventh and twelfth for example of the first cycle might very well be the sixth, eleventh, and sixteenth respectively of the second, if the worst came to the worst.  But this was a drawback I could not avoid.  And if in the cycles taken together utter confusion was bound to reign, at least within each cycle taken separately I could be easy in my mind, at least as easy as one can be, in a proceeding of this kind.  For in order for each cycle to be identical, as to the succession of stones in my mouth, and God knows I had set my heart on it, the only means were numbered stones or sixteen pockets.  And rather than make twelve more pockets or number my stones, I preferred to make the best of the comparative peace of mind I enjoyed within each cycle taken separately.

    For it was not enough to number the stones, but I would have had to remember, every time I put a stone in my mouth, the number I needed and look for it in my pocket.  Which would have put me off stone for ever, in a very short time.  For I would never have been sure of not making a mistake, unless of course I had kept a kind of register, in which to tick off the stones one by one, as I sucked them.  And of this I believed myself incapable.  No, the only perfect solution would have been the sixteen pockets, symmetrically disposed, each one with its stone.  Then I would have needed neither to number nor to think, but merely, as I sucked a given stone, to move on the fifteen others, a delicate business admittedly, but within my power, and to call always on the same pocket when I felt like a suck.  This would have freed me from all anxiety, not only within each cycle taken separately, but also for the sum of all cycles, though they went on forever.

    But however imperfect my own solution was, I was pleased at having found it all alone, yes, quite pleased.  And if it was perhaps less sound than I had thought in the first flush of discovery, its inelegance never diminished.  And it was above all inelegant in this, to my mind, that the uneven distribution was painful to me, bodily.  It is true that a kind of equilibrium was reached, at a given moment, in the early stages of each cycle, namely after the third suck and before the fourth, but it did not last long, and the rest of the time I felt the weight of the stones dragging me now to one side, now to the other.  There was something more than a principle I abandoned, when I abandoned the equal distribution, it was a bodily need. But to suck the stones in the way I have described, not haphazard, but with method, was also I think a bodily need. Here then were two incompatible bodily needs, at loggerheads. Such things happen.

    But deep down I didn't give a tinker's curse about being off my balance, dragged to the right hand and the left, backwards and forewards. And deep down it was all the same to me whether I sucked a different stone each time or always the same stone, until the end of time. For they all tasted exactly the same. And if I had collected sixteen, it was not in order to ballast myself in such and such a way, or to suck them turn about, but simply to have a little store, so as never to be without. But deep down I didn't give a fiddler's curse about being without, when they were all gone they would be all gone, I wouldn't be any the worse off, or hardly any.  And the solution to which I rallied in the end was to throw away all the stones but one, which I kept now in one pocket, now in another, and which of course I soon lost, or threw away, or gave away, or swallowed.

    [It seems to me that Molloy underestimates the utility of numbering his stones.  He could simply note the number n of the stone in his mouth when he removes it, and then search his pockets for stone n+1 (modulo 16).  With four stones per pocket and no stone-shifting, he will have on average to remove two before finding it.]

    2011-09-29

    Publication dates for the parts of the OED

    The Oxford English Dictionary has had three editions:
    • the original edition, published in twelve volumes from 1888 to 1928, and known retrospectively as OED1
    • the OED2, consisting of a supplement published in four volumes from 1972 to 1986 (there was a 1933 supplement to OED1 too, but it was superseded by the four-volume supplement so I'm ignoring it here) and merged with the text of OED1 in 1989, after which two volumes of new words and senses were published in 1993 and one more in 1997
    • the OED3, currently in progress and being published online only.
    When you look at the online version, each page is marked OED2 or OED3, but since the supplement only included new words and meanings of words since OED1, many of the so-called OED2 pages are really unmodified OED1. What is more, the OED1 volumes were published in installments called fascicles, and very little revision was done before the fascicles were merged into volumes.

    So here's a table of when the various fascicles, volumes, and editions were published, so that you can find out, at least probably if not definitively, the true age of an OED definition. Unless otherwise noted, all the entries are OED1.  Note that the fascicles weren't necessarily published exactly in alphabetical order, because several editors worked on the project simultaneously.

    Words includedDate (YYYY-MM-DD format)
    A-Ant1884-01
    Ant-Batten1885-11
    Batter-Boz1887-03
    Bra-Byz1888-06
    A-B volume1888
    C-Cass1888-06
    Cast-Clivy1889-11
    Clo-Consigner1891-10
    Consignant-Crouching1893-05
    Crouchmas-Czech1893-11
    C volume1893
    D-Deceit1894-11
    Deceit-Deject1894-12
    Deject-Depravation1895-06
    Depravative-Development1895-12
    Development-Diffluency1895-12
    Diffluent-Disburden1896-06
    Disburdened-Disobservant1896-09
    Disobstetricate-Distrustful1896-12
    Distrustfully-Doom1897-03
    Doom-Dziggetai1897-06
    E-Every1891-07
    Everybody-Ezod1894-03
    D-E volume1897
    F-Fang1894-11
    Fanged-Fee1895-04
    Fee-Field1895-09
    Field-Fish1896-03
    Fish-Flexuose1896-09
    Flexuosity-Foister1897-03
    Foisty-Frankish1897-10
    Frank-law-Gain-coming1898-01
    Gain-cope-Germanizing1898-01
    Germano-Glass-cloth1899-03
    Glass-coach-Graded1900-01
    Gradeley-Greement1900-07
    Green-Gyzzarn1900-12
    F-G volume1900
    H-Haversian1898-03
    Haversine-Heel1898-06
    Heel-Hod1898-12
    Hod-Horizontal1899-03
    Horizontality-Hywe1899-06
    I-In1899-10
    In-Inferred1900-03
    Inferring-Inpushing1900-07
    Input-Invalid1900-10
    Invalid-Jew1900-12
    Jew-Kairine1901-06
    Kaiser-Kyx1901-10
    H-K volume1901
    L-Lap1901-03
    Lap-Leisurely1902-01
    Leisureness-Lief1902-03
    Leif-Lock1903-01
    Lock-Lyyn1903-10
    M-Mandragon1904-10
    Mandragora-Matter1905-07
    Matter-Mesnalty1906-03
    Mesne-Misbirth1906-12
    Misbode-Monopoly1907-06
    Monopoly-Movement1908-03
    Movement-Myz1908-09
    N-Niche1906-09
    Niche-Nywe1907-09
    L-N volume1908
    O-Onomastic1902-07
    Onomastical-Outing1903-03
    Outjet-Ozyat1904-01
    P-Pargeted1904-03
    Pargeter-Pennached1904-12
    Pennage-Pfennig1905-09
    Ph-Piper1906-06
    Piper-Polygenistic1907-03
    Polygenous-Premious1907-12
    Premisal-Prophesier1908-12
    Prophesy-Pyxis1909-09
    O-P volume1909
    Q1902-10
    R-Reactive1903-07
    Reactively-Ree1904-07
    Ree-Reign1905-03
    Reign-Reserve1906-01
    Reserve-Ribaldously1908-06
    Ribaldric-Romanite1909-03
    Romanity-Roundness1909-12
    Round-nose-Ryze1910-03
    S-Sauce1909-06
    Sauce-alone-Scouring1910-06
    Scouring-Sedum1911-03
    See-Senatory1911-12
    Senatory-Several1912-09-30
    Several-Shaster1913-06-13
    Shastri-Shyster1914-03-26
    Q-Sh volume1914
    Si-Simple1910-12
    Simple-Sleep1911-09
    Sleep-Sniggle1912-06-27
    Sniggle-Sorrow1913-03-27
    Sorrow-Speech1914-09-28
    Speech-Spring1915-03-25
    Spring-Standard1915-09-30
    Standard-Stead1915-06-29
    Stead-Stillatim1916-06-29
    Stillation-Stratum1917-12-06
    Stratus-Styx1919-09-04
    Si-St volume1919
    Su-Subterraneous1914-12-22
    Subterraneously-Sullen1915-12-21
    Sullen-Supple1917-01-18
    Supple-Sweep1913-03-21
    Sweep-Szmikite1919-09-04
    T-Tealt1910-09
    Team-Tezkere1911-06
    Th-Thyzle1912-03-29
    Su-Th volume1919
    Ti-Tombac1912-12-23
    Tombal-Trahysh1913-09-25
    Traik-Trinity1914-06-24
    Trink-Turn-down1915-06-24
    Turndun-Tzirid1916-03-27
    U-Unforeseeable1921-10-06
    Unforeseeing-Unright1924-07-31
    Unright-Uzzle1926-07-29
    Ti-U volume1926
    V-Verificative1916-10-26
    Verificatory-Visor1917-08-30
    Visor-Vywer1920-04-01
    W-Wash1921-10-06
    Wash-Wavy1923-05-24
    Wavy-Wezzon1926-08-12
    Wh-Whisking1923-05-17
    Whisky-Wilfullness1924-11-27
    Wilga-Wise1926-08-12
    Wise-Wyzen1928-04-19
    XYZ1921-10-06
    V-Z volume1928
    OED1 in full (12 vols.)1928
    Supplement A-G1972
    Supplement H-N1976
    Supplement O-Sd1982
    Supplement Sea-Z1986
    OED2 in full (20 vols.)1989
    OED2 Supplement vols. 1-21993
    OED2 supplement vol. 31997
    OED3in progress

    2011-07-24

    Groups of names

    RFC 1178, a wise and funny set of rules on how to name computers (and how not to), recommends that groups of computers that have something in common be given names that have something in common.  The principle isn't limited to computers, to be sure.

    Here's a list of 255 groups of names ranging in size from two names on upward.  I can't tell you where they come from, though I very much doubt anyone will sue you for reusing them.  Feel free to figure out and post what the common factors are, the more specific the better, though I don't have any more authoritative information than you do.  Obviously, answers of the form "These are the names of the xxxx's at yyyy" are not helpful.

    Challenge:  A few of the groups are fakes (don't come from the original source).  Which ones?




    1) Canteen, Cosy Room, Rembrandt, van Gogh, Vermeer

    2) De Dam, Leidseplein, Museumplein, Nieuwmarkt, Rembrandtplein, Zeedijk

    3) Ann Arbor, Chelsea, Dearborn, Detroit, Grand Rapids, Grosse Pointe, Hell MI, Holland, Kalamazoo, Plymouth, Portage, St. Joseph, Three Rivers

    4) Bad Axe, Cadillac, Frankenmuth, Lansing, Ludington, Midland, Mt. Pleasant, Pinconning, Port Huron

    5) Marquette, Oscoda, Petoskey

    6) Battle Creek, Charlevoix, Houghton, Mackinac Island, Munising, Ontonagon, Paradise, Sault St. Marie, Traverse City

    7) Boars Nest, Bo Duke, Daisy Duke, General Lee, Luke Duke, Uncle Jesse

    8) Astrud Gilberto, Cootie Williams, Ella Fitzgerald, Folsom, Jimmy Scott, John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Montreux, Quincy Jones, Ray Charles, Sarah Vaughn, Sun Ra, Thelonius Monk

    9) Brookhaven, Buckhead, Candler Park, Decatur, Druid Hills, East Atlanta, East Lake, Grant Park, Inman Park, Little 5 Points, Midtown, Morningside, Oakhurst, Ormewood Park, OTP, Reynoldstown, Sandy Springs, Virginia Highlands

    10) Alamo, Armadillo, Iron Man, Longhorn

    11) Bar, Barton Springs, Baz, Bull Creek, Deep Eddy, Devil's Cove, Foo, Hamilton Pool, Hippie Hollow, House Park, Ladybird Lake, Windy Point

    12) Bulette, Icke, Kitt, Rincewind, Tresor

    13) Moeda, Ouro Branco

    14) Akwan, Caparao, Mantiqueira

    15) Cipo, Curral

    16) Canastra, Espinhaco

    17) 8 Mile Rd, Gratiot Ave, Maple Rd, Michigan Ave, Reuther Fwy, Southfield Fwy, Telegraph Rd, The Lodge Fwy, The Palace, Woodward Ave

    18) Aspen, Crested Butte, Manitou Springs, Red Rocks, Rotunda, South Park, Tiny Town

    19) Dinosaur, Estes Park, Flatirons, Garden of the Gods, Independence Pass, Longs Peak, Mesa Verde, Sand Dunes, SuperMax

    20) Anca, Avanti, Chedi, Chola, Dravida, Kalinga, Kanchi, Kashi, Kekaya, Kunti, Magadha, Panchala, Pandya, Sindhu, Sinhala, Videha

    21) Ben Hur, Bon Appetit, Casino Royale, Cyborg, Deja Vu, Dune, Gladiator, Golden Eye, Hercules, Jumanji, Moonraker, Predator, Radio lab, Robocop, Sparta, Thunderball, Zardos

    22) Enigma, Hawaiian Shack, Poison

    23) Smurf, Tintin

    24) Condorito, Gaturro, Hijitus, Mafalda, Miguelito, Susanita

    25) Beacon Hill, Faneuil Hall, North End, Waterfront

    26) Boondock Saints, Cheers, Dead Poets Society, Glory, Good Will Hunting, Mystic River, The Departed, The Perfect Storm

    27) Big Dig, Mayflower, Tea Party, Walden Pond

    28) Harpoon, Magic Hat, Sam Adams

    29) etc, proc, var

    30) Aragon Ballroom, Cheap Trick, Kingston Mines, Metro Chicago, Ravinia Festival, Schubas Tavern, Smashing Pumpkins, Styx, The Vic Theater, Wilco

    31) Blues Brothers, Bob's Country Bunker, Championship Vinyl, Chez Quiz, Ferris Bueller, High Fidelity, Hubbards Cave, Risky Business, Sixteen Candles, The Breakfast Club, Wayne's World

    32) Gold Coast, Hyde Park, Lakeview, Old Town, Ravenswood, Wrigleyville

    33) Asti, Pad Thai

    34) Armadillo, Big Tex, Bluebonnet, Buddy Holly, Longhorn, The Alamo, Willie Nelson, Yellow Rose

    35) Bakken, Legoland, Tivoli

    36) Broken Top, Chicken Charlie Island, Klamath

    37) Mt Hood, Mt Mazama, Wizard Island

    38) Bosco, Longmile Sprawl, Podge, Rodge, Zag, Zig

    39) Boyne, Kells, Tara

    40) Curie, Edison, Freud, Socrates, van Gogh

    41) Circle N, Dodo, El Paso, Mars, Moonquake

    42) Bordeaux, Chianti, Douro, La Rioja

    43) Ballroom, Library, Study, The Carriage House, The Conservatory, The Dining Room, The Studio, The Trophy Room

    44) Ashford, Carrickfergus, Kilkenny, Malahide, Slane

    45) Boiler Room, Dashboard, Dude, Fear, Glengarry, Jerry Maguire, ManBearPig, Nice Red Uniforms, Office Space, Ruthless Efficiency, Surprise, The Closer, Wall Street

    46) Argon, Helium, Krypton, Lithium, Neon, Potassium, Radon, Rubidium, Sodium, Xenon

    47) Lord Vetinari, Mustrum Ridcully, Rincewind, Sam Vimes

    48) Beckett, Behan, Binchy, Fusion, Doyle, Joyce, Kinsella, O'Casey, Pearse, Swift, Wilde, Yeats

    49) Alhambra, Camelot, Colosseo, Den Lille Havfrue, In Den Alpen, Leidseplein, Lorelei, Montmartre, Mont Saint Michel, Muumilaakso, Newgrange, Nidarosdomen, Ponte Vecchio, Torre de Belem, Vasaskeppet

    50) Brady, Brennan, Gallagher, Geldof, Hewson, Lynott, McEvoy, Morrison, O'Connor, O'Riordan

    51) Aponoia, Epithumia, Hedone, Olethros, Oneiros, Potmos, Teleute

    52) Diamond, Emerald, Onyx, Pearl, Platinum

    53) Koe Allee, Rheinblick

    54) Aladdin, Sinbad

    55) Bembel, Eppler, Worscht

    56) Duvel, Westvleteren

    57) Akiaki, Aldabra, Baltra, Barduda, Cedros, Dolgoi, Formosa, Gomera

    58) Gurgaon, Inhaca, Jemo, Koro

    59) Nassu, Obi, Orango, Paros, Piazzi, Qamea, Quinchao, Roxa

    60) Ekero, Jawa, Kaggo, Mela, Saibai, Samso, Sangir, Savu, Serrano, Temoe, Tenerife, Tiburon, Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Ulithi, Uman, Unimak, Urup, Vega, Vieques, Wakaya, Wokam, Wotho, Yakobi, Yunaska, Zembra, Zufaf

    61) Backbord, Fehmarn, Ruegen, Steuerbord, Sylt, Usedom

    62) Alster, Davidstrasse, Elbe, Gaensemarkt, Grossneumarkt, Hans Albers Platz, Kombuese, Neuer Pferdemarkt, Reeperbahn, Silbersackstrasse

    63) Fiete, Hinnerk, Kloenschnack

    64) Avital, Carmel, Gilboa, Hermon, Megiddo, Meron, Tavor

    65) Chun Guen, Daan Tart, Har Gau, Siu Mai, Wun Ton

    66) Pune, Trivendrum

    67) Amritsar, Calicut, Cogra, Jalandhar, Panaji, Patna, Raipur, Ranchi, Shimla, Srinagar, Udaipur

    68) Daman Diu, Darjeeling, Dehradun, Delhi, Durgapur, Dwarka, Ellora, Ernakulam

    69) Faridabad, Faridkot, Ferozepur, Gangtok, Gurgaon, Hampi, Haridwar, Hastinapur, Hubli

    70) Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jammu, Jhansi, Kochi, Mumbai

    71) Aradhana, Aristotle, Bambam, Challenge, Chirutha, Confucius, Darwin, Flintstones, Indra, Jetsons, Johnny Bravo, Jwala, Kabir, Kanad, Khaidi, Master, Nietzsche, Noddy, Panini, Pebbles, Plato, Popeye, Powerpuff Girls, Richie Rich, Saussure, Scooby Doo, Socrates, Sponge Bob, Teletubbies, Top Cat, Veta, Vijetha

    72) Aerosmith, Beatles, Bee Gees, Coldplay, Deep Purple, Dire Straits, Eagles, Iron Maiden, Led Zeppelin, Matchbox Twenty, Metallica, Mufasa, Nemo, Pearl Jam, Pink Floyd, Pocahontas, Princess Fiona, Pumbaa, Queen, Rolling Stones, Scorpions, Shrek, Simba, Timon, U2, Van Halen

    73) American Beauty, Archie Andrews, Armageddon, Asterix, Betty Cooper, Braveheart, Calvin and Hobbes, Casablanca, Forrest Gump, Frankenstein, Grease, Homer Simpson, Jughead Jones, Jurassic Park, King Kong, Marge Simpson, Obelix, Peter Griffin, Pulp Fiction, Ray, Reggie Mantle, Rocky, Rush Hour, Serendipity, Star Wars, Stewie Griffin, Terminator, The Departed, The Exorcist, The Godfather, The Matrix, Tintin, Titanic, Veronica Lodge

    74) American Idol, Bewitched, Bugs Bunny, Charmed, Chip 'N Dale, Daffy Duck, Daisy Duck, Desperate Housewives, Donald Duck, ER, Friends, Goofy, Grey's Anatomy, Heroes, Jerry, Lost, Magica De Spell, Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Mr. Bean, Oprah, Pluto, Prison Break, Roswell, Scrooge McDuck, Scrubs, Silver Spoons, Smallville, Small Wonder, That '70s Show, The Apprentice, The Brady Bunch, The Crystal Maze, The Scholar, Tom, Tweety Bird

    75) Batman, Cinderella, Cyclops, Electra, Hawk Girl, Krypton, Phoenix, Rapunzel, Robin, Snow White, Spider Man, Superman, Wolverine, Wonder Woman

    76) Akbar & Birbal, Auntie Shanti, Cafe d'art, Chacha Chowdhry, da Vinci, Frida, Kalia the Crow, Mary Cassatt, Michelangelo, Monet, Pollock, Ramu & Shamu, Rembrandt, Renoir, Shikari Shambu, Suppandi, Toulouse Lautrec, van Gogh

    77) Ajanta, Charminar, Fatehpur Sikri, Goa, Hyderabad, Mysore Palace, Taj Mahal

    78) Caddyshack, Casablanca, Columbia, Disney, Footloose, Fox, Ghostbusters, Goodfellas, Gremlins, Lionsgate, Matrix, MGM, Paramount, Pixar, Rocky, Universal, Warner Bros.

    79) Burning Man, City Limits, Coachella, Glastonbury, Lilith Fair, Lollapalooza, Montreux Jazz, Ozzfest, Summerfest, Sunsplash, Woodstock

    80) Americano, Cougars, Espresso, Huskies, Mariners, Olympic, Seahawks, Sonics, Sounders, Storm

    81) Adams, Cascade/Event Area, Crater Lake, Hood, Jefferson, Lassen, McLoughlin, Mt. St. Helens, Newberry, Rainier, Thielsen, Three Sisters

    82) Fistful, Infamous, Sloppy, Walking

    83) Acropolis, Angkor, Chichen Itza, Corcovado Statue

    84) Easter Island, Eiffel Tower, Giza Pyramids, Great Wall, Kiyomizu Temple, Machu Picchu, Neuschwanstein Castle, Petra, Statue of Liberty, Stonehenge, Sydney Opera House, Taj Mahal, Timbuktu

    85) Everest, Lhotse

    86) Access Denied, Broken Pipe, Segmentation Fault

    87) Abisko, Akka

    88) Brickyard, Bristol, Darlington, Lowes, The Garage, Vegas

    89) Barbican, Brixton, Camden Town, Cannon Street, Ealing Broadway, Gloucester Road, Goodge Street, Kew Gardens, Leicester Square, Liverpool Street, Mile End, Moorgate, Mornington Crescent, Nicolle, Oval, Sloane Square, South Kensington, St. James Park, Tottenham Court Road, Victoria, Waterloo, Wimbledon

    90) Amundsen, Atrium, Barents, Berners Lee, Brunel, Columbus, Cook, Da Gama, Drake, Faraday, Hawking, Livingstone, Magellan, Maxwell, Mobile Hubble, Newton, Turing, VC Booth 1, VC Booth 2, VC Booth 3, Vespucci

    91) Austen, Bronte, Dickens, Dumas, Orwell, Pasternak, Stevenson, Tolkien, Tolstoy

    92) Bristol, Piper, Track, Trig, Willow

    93) Barcelona, Bilbao, Chueca, Granada, Huertas, Oviedo, Salamanca, Santander

    94) Botticelli, Giotto, Leonardo

    95) Carducci, Dante, Leopardi, Montale, Pascoli, Petrarca, Ungaretti

    96) Edward Teach, Henry Avery, Jack Rackham, Jean Thomas Dulien, Stede Bonnett, Thomas Tew

    97) case, const, default, goto, mutable, switch, try

    98) Moscow, Plyuk, Prostokvashino, Shelezyaka

    99) Kalina, Malina, Ryabina

    100) Kegonsa, Mendota, Monona, Waubesa, Wingra, Yahara

    101)  Amanu,  Arutua,  Beka,  Bora Bora,  Buratu,  Chormah,  Eiao,  Fetuna,  Futi,  Hiti,  Hua

    102)  Adventure Sound,  Carysfort,  Dunnose,  Eagle Passage,  Fitzroy,  Foam Creek,  Fox Bay,  Grantham Sound,  Hornby,  Keppel

    103) Caroline Point, Malvinas, Port Harriet, Port Howard, Port Louis, Port Stephens, Rookery Bay, Sappers, Saunders, Seal Bay, Speedwell, Stanley, Surf Bay, Volunteer Point, Weddell, Yorke Bay

    104)  Babuyan Claro,  Cabalian,  Iraya,  Iriga,  Isarog

    105)  Antipolo,  Bago,  Balanga,  Bohol,  Cadiz,  Cavite,  Cebu,  Davao,  Digos,  Escalante

    106)  Beppu,  Itami,  Kawasaki,  Kobe,  Kyoto

    107) Nara, Okayama, Osaka, Otaru, Sapporo, Sendai, Tokushima, Yamagata, Yoichi

    108)  Cape Meares,  Champoeg,  Dabney,  Deschutes

    109) La Pine, Memaloose, Minam, Molalla, Mongold, Owyhee, Pilot Butte, Prineville, Prospect, Rooster Rock, Seneca, Silver Falls, Succor Creek, Sumpter, Tumalo, Unity Forest, Viento, Vinzenz, Washburne

    110)  Arapaho,  Castlewood,  Chatfield,  Cherry Creek,  Comanche Grassland,  Curecanti,  Eleven Mile,  Florissant,  Grand Mesa,  Great Sand,  Gunnison,  Harvey Gap,  Highline Lake,  Hovenweep,  Jackson Lake,  Lake Pueblo,  Lathrop,  Lone Mesa, Lory, War

    111)  Diamond Head,  Hanauma Bay,  Hapuna Beach,  Iao Valley,  Kaena Point,  Kahana Valley,  Kewalo Basin,  Kona Coast

    112) Lava Tree, Makapuu Point, Makena Park, Mauna Kea, Na Pali Coast, Polipoli Spring, Umikoa, Waahila Ridge, Wailoa River, Wailua Valley, Waimea Canyon

    113)  Alamitos,  Arroyo Mocho,  Arroyo Valle,  Bodega Bay,  Bolinas Lagoon

    114) Calaveras Creek, Calera, Cherry Canyon, Coyote Creek, Easton, Feather River, Garrity, Gold Creek, Green Valley, Guadalupe, Happy Valley, Islais, Koopman

    115) Laguna Salada, Leyden, Lion Creek, Lobos Creek, Milagra, Mowry Slough, Novato Creek, Oyster Bay, Permanente Creek, Petaluma River, Peyton Creek, Pinole Creek, Pirate Creek, Rheem, Stevens Creek, Sulphur Springs, Sycamore

    116) Tassajara, Tehan, Temescal, Tolay, Tomales Bay, Uvas Creek, Vallecitos, Walker Creek, Walnut Creek, Ward Creek, Welch Creek, Wildcat Creek, Yosemite Creek

    117)  Aiea,  Eleele,  Ewa,  Halawa,  Honolulu,  Kahului,  Kailua,  Kapaa,  Kihei

    118) Lahaina, Nanakuli, Nanawale, Napili, Pearl City, Waimalu, Waimea, Waipahu, Waipiu

    119)  Aldebaran,  Andoria,  Drema

    120)  Bruneau,  Cascade Lake,  Castle Rocks,  City of Rocks,  Coeur D'Alene,  Dworshak,  Eagle Island,  Farragut,  Heyburn

    121) Lake Walcott, Lucky Peak, McCroskey, Old Mission, Ponderosa, Priest Lake, Thousand Springs, Winchester

    122)  Chelan,  Dash Point,  Dosewallips,  Ebeys,  Fields Spring,  Goldendale,  Grayland

    123) Larrabee, Moran, Mystery Bay, Nolte, Olallie, Osoyoos, Palouse, Potlatch, Rainbow Falls, Rasar, Rockport, Sacajawea, Seaquest, Yakima

    124)  Antalya,  Atlas,  Beirut,  Bucharest,  Burgas, Damascus,  Haifa,  Kaluga,  Kazan,  Kazan Lounge,  Kiev,  Perl,  PHP,  Pike,  PL/I,  PL/SQL,  Postscript,  Prolog,  Python

    125) Ada, Algol, APL, AppleScript, Assembly, Awk, Basic, C, C#, C++, Cobol, Eiffel, Erlang, Forth, Fortran, Haskell, HTML, Icon, Java, Javascript, Lisbon, Lisp, Logo, Lourdes, Madrid, Matlab, Mersin, ML, Modula, Nice, Ocaml, Pascal, Perugia, Rouen, Setubal, Seville, Siena, Sofia, Tehran, Toledo, Turin, University Theatre, Vezelay, Vienna, Zaragoza

    126)  Abilene,  Albuquerque,  Ardmore,  Aurora,  Chesapeake,  Dalhart,  Etna,  Gainesville

    127) Miami, Olympia, Portland, Richmond, Saskatoon, Seaside

    128) Tucson, Verbena, Vernal, Vidalia, Waverly, Weatherford, Weyburn, Wichita, Winnipeg, Wynne, Yarnell, Yellow Bluff, Yoder, Zephyr Cove

    129)  Apoera,  Arica,  Belem,  Brasilia,  Buenaventura,  Capanema,  Cayenne,  Charana,  Coro,  Cuiaba,  Esquel,  Fortaleza,  Georgetown

    130) La Paz, Lima, Manaus, Manizales, Matoury, Montevideo, Natal, Niteroi, Palmas, Paramaribo 42, Quito, Santiago, Sao Paulo

    131) Adsense, Tepu, Valencia, Witagron, Yacuiba, Yopal

    132)  Abidjan,  Abuja,  Accra,  Addis Ababa,  Aksum,  Algiers,  Atar,  Banfora,  Bangui,  Benghazi,  Berbera,  Casablanca,  Dapaong,  Delgo,  Dire Dawa,  Douala,  El Golea,  Faya,  Fes,  Gambela,  Gaoua,  Gardo,  Guipe,  Khartoum,  Kotsi

    133) Marrakesh, Mogadishu, Mongo, Monrovia, Nairobi, Navrongo, Nyala, Ouagadougou, Rabat, Segou, Shebha, Siguiri, Tarfaya, Terna, Timbuktu, Tripoli, Tummu, Tunis, Wau, Yaounde

    134)  Arusha,  Bangula,  Binga,  Blantyre,  Caprivi,  Chipata,  Cuamba,  Durban,  Gokwe,  Gweru,  Harare

    135) Maseru, Matobo, Maun, Mossel, Mutare, Nata, Pretoria, Ubundu, Werda, Zambezi, Zanzibar, Zavala

    136)  Amnat,  Ang Tong,  Ayutthaya,  Bangkok,  Ban Mi,  Ban Pong,  Betong,  Bua Yai,  Chai Nat,  Chiang Mai,  Chiang Rai,  Chon Buri,  Hat Yai,  Hua Hin,  Kalasin

    137) Lampang, Lop Buri, Nan, Na San, Pattani, Phuket, Prachin, Rayong, Saraburi, Satun, Sena, Sing Buri, Surin, Tak, Tha Kham, Trang, Ubon, Warin, Yala

    138)  Anare,  Athena,  Green Gorge

    139) Jubany, McMurdo, Neumayer, O Higgins, Palmer, Prat, Rothera, South Pole, Syowa, Vostok

    140)  Attopeu,  Bac Can,  Ca Mau,  Con Son,  Da Lat,  Da Nang,  Hai Phong,  Ha Noi,  Ha Tinh

    141) Nam Dinh, Napheng, Napiat, Naxa, Paklay, Pakse, Paksong, Phnom Penh, Seno, Sonla, Tuy Hoa, Vangsim, Vang Vieng, Vapi, Vientiane, Vinh

    142)  Amancio,  Banes,  Baracoa,  Bauta,  Bayamo,  Biran,  Camaguey,  Florencia,  Guines,  Havana,  Holguin

    143) Las Tunas, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas, Mayari, Moa, Nueva Gerona, Palma Soriano, Pinar, Placetas, Puerto Padre, Ranchuelo, Remedios, Sagua, Sancti, San Luis, Union, Yaguajay

    144) Amorsolo, Bae, Boonma, Hiroshige, Hokusai, Hongdo, Huay, Luna

    145) Kuramata, Lajmi, Mali, Noda, Noguchi, Padamsee, Qureshi, Rathore, Raza, Rosanjin, Sokhwan, Varma, Wasim, Xiaodong, Zobel

    146) Abu Nuwas, Africanus, Ahmad Baba, Alencas, Amru, Balzac, Basho, Bronte, Byron, Caloris Montes, Camoes, Chekov, Couperin, Dario, Donne

    147) Eitoku, Equiano, Fram, Ghiberti, Gluck, Goya, Handel, Harunobu, Haydn, Hesiod, Hitomaro, Horace, Imhotep, Kalidasa, Kenko, Khansa, Kuan, Leopardi

    148) Mahler, Marti, Mena, Mistral, Mofolo, Myron, Nampeyo, Nervo, Nezami, Odin, Ovid, Petrarch, Proust, Pushkin, Rabelais, Rilke, Sadi, Sayat, Snorri, Surdas

    149) Tansen, Thakur, Theophanes, Tolstoy, Tsai, Turgenev, Unkei, Valmiki, Velazquez, Vyasa, Wagner, Wergeland, Wren, Yeats, Yun Sondo, Zarya, Zeami, Zeehaen, Zola

    150) Abalos, Acidalia, Aeolis, Albor, Anseris Mons, Apollinaris, Arsia Mons, Ascraeus Mons, Olympus Mons

    151) Cydonia, Dejnev, Elysium, Eos, Fontana, Geryon, Gonnus, Hibes, Hipparchus, Huygens, Isil, Izendy, Jovis, Kuiper

    152) Lowell, Lyot, Malea, Meroe, Nansen, Niesten, Nili, Octantis, Orcus, Oxia, Pavonis, Perepelkin, Phlegra, Pindus, Roddenberry

    153) Samara, Sepik, Terby, Teviot, Tinia, Trebia, Tyras, Uzboi, Vedra, Vogel, Voo, Voza, Warrego, Woomera, Xanthe, Xui, Yaonis, Yebra, Zephyria

    154) Adal, Asgard, Aziren, Bavorr, Bragi, Bran, Buri, Dia, Durinn, Erlik

    155) Gandalfr, Ginandi, Gisl, Gloi, Gunnr, Hepti, Ilma, Jumo, Keelut, Lempo, Lodurr, Loni, Losy, Lycaon, Mimir, Mitsina

    156) Nakki, Nama, Nar, Nerrivik, Nidi, Numi, Omol, Pakane, Randver, Saga, Saraka, Skeggold, Sudri, Sumbur

    157) Tapio, Toll, Tontu, Uksakka, Vanapagan, Veralden, Vestri, Vidarr, Vitr, Vutash, Ymir, Yuryung

    158) DL Bliss, Emerald Bay, Folsom Lake, Hatton

    159) Pacheco, Palomar, Pigeon Point, Pio Pico, Placerita, Plumas, Point Lobos, Portola, Salton Sea, San Simeon, Silverwood, Tolowa, Topanga, Tule Elk, Washoe, Wassama, Wildwood

    160) Annadel, Benbow, Bidwell, Calaveras, Candlestick, Caspar, Castaic, Castle Crags, Castle Rock

    161) La Purisima, Leo Carillo, Limekiln, Los Encinos, Mono Lake, Morro Bay, Oceano, Ocotillo, Olompali

    162) Ames Monument, Bear River, Bighorn, Boysen, Buffalo Bill, Curt Gowdy, Devils Tower, Edness, Fetterman, Fossil Butte, Grand Teton

    163) Independence Rock, Medicine Lodge, Names Hill, Ottley, Platte River, Pony Express, Register Cliff, Shoshone, Trail End, Wagon Box, Yellowstone, Yesness

    164) Bannack, Bolin, Calf Creek, Elkhorn, Finley Point, Flathead Lake, Greycliff, Kootenai

    165) Madison River, Rattlesnake Creek, Rosebud, Roundhorn, Sluice Boxes, Spring Meadow, Thompson Falls, Tower Rock

    166) Englischer Garten, Hofbraeuhaus, Isartorplatz, Marienplatz, Odeonsplatz, Olympiapark, Schloss Nymphenburg, Stachus, Viktualienmarkt

    167) Flushing Meadows, Fort Wadsworth, Prospect Park

    168) Breezy Point, Fort Greene, Marine Park, Sunset Park, The Highline

    169) Steeplechase Park, Washington Square Park

    170) Peninsula, Plaza, Ritz Carlton

    171) Gansevoort, SoHo Grand

    172) CBGB, McSorley's, Milk and Honey

    173) Brass Monkey, Burp Castle, Flight 151, Spuyten Duyvil, Zum Schneider

    174) 86th St. Starbucks, Apollo, Baker Field, Cloisters, Cotton Club, Inwood, Washington Heights

    175) Belvedere Castle, Bethesda Fountain

    176) Delacorte Theatre, Great Lawn, Harlem Meer, Riverside Park

    177) Alice Tully Hall, Columbus Circle, Lincoln Center, Metropolitan Opera, NY Philharmonic, Sheep Meadow, Strawberry Fields, Tavern on the Green

    178) Empire State, Radio City, Rockefeller Center

    179) Battery Park, City Hall, Geo NY, Shake Shack, South Street Seaport, Wall Street

    180) Brooklyn Heights, Cobble Hill, Coney Island, D.U.M.B.O., Williamsburg

    181) Asbury Park, Atlantic City, Avalon, Cape May

    182) Hoboken, Hohokus, Long Beach Island, Manasquan, The Meadowlands

    183) Pine Barrens, Point Pleasant, Princeton

    184) Ridgefield, Spring Lake, Wawa, Wildwood

    185) Sakura, Valentine, Warhol

    186) Bastille, Braille, Einstein, Hitchcock, Opera, Ray Charles

    187) Huo, Mu, Shui, Tu

    188) Rabbit, Goat, Ox, Tiger

    189) Gong, Shang

    190) Ba Jiao, Chen Si, Kai Xin, Qi Xiang, Tan Shou, Tuo Ta, Zuo Lu

    191) Bai Lu, Chun Fen, Dong Zhi, Li Chun, Li Qiu, Li Xia, Mang Zhong, Qiu Fen, Xiao Shu, Xia Zhi

    192) Han, Jin, Ming, Qin, Sui, Tang, Xia, Zhou

    193) Li Ji, Shang Shu, Zhou Yi

    194) Chang Ban Po, Ding Jun Shan, Long Zhong Dui, Qun Ying Hui, Tong Que Tai, Wo Long Gang

    195) Hai Wang Xing, Huo Xing, Jin Xing, Shui Xing, Tian Wang Xing, Tu Xing

    196) Diagon Alley, Gringotts, Hogwarts, Platform 9 3/4

    197) Area 51, Batcave, Black Widow, Centipede, Chupacabra, Coyote, Gila Monster, Killer Bee, Ocelot, Rattlesnake, Road Runner, Ruby, Scorpion, Snowbird, Summer Picnic, Tarantula

    198) Bob Dog, Chef Edgar Cooke, Daniel Striped Tiger, Donkey Hodie, Dr Duckbill Platypus, Harriet Elizabeth Cow, Henrietta Pussycat, King Friday XIII, Lady Elaine Fairchilde, Mister Rogers, Neighborhood of Make Believe, Prince Tuesday, Purple Panda, Queen Sara Saturday, X the Owl

    199) Bob, Bobek

    200) Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Arthur Ashe, Booker T. Washington, Ella Fitzgerald, George C. Scott, Kate Smith, Lewis And Clark, Patsy Cline, Pearl Bailey

    201) Autorama, Bambole, Domino, Falcon, Forte Apache, Genius, Pense Bem, Peteca, Piao, Playmobil, Pogoball

    202) Abrolhos, Ipanema, Iracema, Itaunas, Maresias, Ponta d'Areia

    203)  Asteroids,  Castlevania,  Centipede,  Contra,  Donkey Kong,  DOOM,  Double Dragon,  Dragon's Lair,  Excitebike,  Final Fantasy,  Frogger,  Galaga,  Gauntlet,  Golden Tee,  Grand Theft Auto,  Half Life,  Halo,  Joust,  Madden,  Metroid,  Mortal Kombat,  Ms. Pac Man,  Pac Man,  Paperboy,  Pong,  Punch Out!,  Qbert,  Rampage,  Resident Evil,  Sonic,  Space Invaders,  Street Fighter,  Super Mario Bros.,  Tecmo Bowl,  Tetris,  The Horseshoe,  Tron

    204) ABC, Zelda

    205) Center of the Universe, Dubliner, Matador, Prost, Red Door, War Room

    206) Cirrus, Cumulus, Hail, Monsoon, Purple Haze, Showers, Snow, Sprinkle, Squall, Stratus, Thunderstorm, Umbrella

    207) Alki, Bumbershoot, Burke Gilman, Canal, Chinook, Fish Market, Floating Bridges, Gasworks, Hammering Man, Houseboat, Interurban, Kingdome, Locks, Mighty O, Monorail, Pike, Pioneer, Red Hook, Seafair, Shilshole, Solstice, Space Needle

    208) Abba, Acasia, Baekje, Balhae, Beethoven, Chosun, Daisy, Fresia, Gaudi, Gaya, Goguryeo, Goryo, Hwangjiny, Isadora Duncan, Jiphyunjoun, Lily, Picasso, Shakespeare, Silla

    209) Charmed, Dharma & Greg, Doris Day Show, Falcon Crest, First Years, Full House, Girls Club, Half & Half, Hooperman, Ironside, Journey Man, Life and Times of Juniper Lee, Love Is a Many Splendored Thing, McMillan and Wife, Midnight Caller, Monk, My Sister Sam, MythBusters, Nash Bridges, Party of Five, Phyllis, Sliders, Streets of SF, Suddenly Susan, That's So Raven, The Lineup, The Real World, Too Close for Comfort, Top Chef, Trapper John M.D., Twins, Wolf

    210) American Graffiti, Barbary Coast, Basic Instinct, Birdman of Alcatraz, Bullitt, Days of Wine and Roses, Dirty Harry, Flower Drum Song, Harold and Maude, Innerspace, Magnum Force, Maltese Falcon, Matrix Revolutions, Metro, Mrs. Doubtfire, Murder In The First, Sister Act, So I Married an Axe Murderer, Star Trek 4, The Birds, The Fan, The Rock, Vertigo, X Men

    211) Balboa Terrace, Bret Harte, Buena Vista, Castro, Cayuga, Cole Valley, Diamond Heights, Dogpatch, Duboce Triangle, Eureka Valley, Excelsior, Fairmount, Financial District, Forest Hill, Forest Knolls, Glen Park, Haight Ashbury, Hayes Valley, Holly Park, Hunters Point, Lakeshore, Laurel Heights, Lincoln Park, Lone Mountain, Marina, Mission, Nob Hill, Noe Valley, Portola, Presidio, Soma, St. Francis Wood, Sunset, Sutro Heights, Tenderloin

    212) Chen Huang Miao, Da Guang Ming, Da Shi Jie, Dian Shan Hu, Lu Zhi, Nan Xun, Paramount, Shi Ku Men, Shi Liu Pu, The Bund, Tong Li, Wu Zhen, Xi Tang, Zhou Zhuang

    213) Aiyoyo, Apa Kabar, Bo Chup, Chao, Kiasu, Kumusta, Nihao, Paiseh, Sawaddee, Selamat

    214) Hermosa, Huntington, Jaws, Laguna, Manhattan, Newport, Redondo

    215) Baywatch, Cast Away, Malibu, Paradise Cove, Sunset, Ventura, Zuma

    216) Brown Derby, Coconut Grove, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Pig and Whistle

    217) La Monica Ballroom, Pacific Plunge, Pier Aquarium, Rusty's Surf Ranch, Uncomfortable Triangle, Whack A Mole

    218) Bait & Tackle, Hippodrome, Mini Golf, Sea Dragon, Skee Ball, Spill the Milk

    219) Alfred, Katthult, Vimmerby

    220) Benois, Montferrand, Rastrelli, Rossi, St. Petersburg

    221) Atlant, Fontanka, Moika, Sphinx, Strelka

    222) Hulk Hogan, Wrestlemania

    223)  Lychee,  Mango

    224) Melbourne, Sydney

    225) Appropriately, Between, Jest, Denial, Hale, Mates, Sane, Side, Spired, Stead, Tense, Venting, Voice, Voluntarily

    226) Beachley, McGrath, Webb

    227) Bradbury, Bradman, Brock, Campese, Camplin, Cuthbert, Doohan, Fraser, Freeman, Gaze, Goolagong, Gould, Kewell, Lewis Sydney, Lillee, Perkins, Rafter, Strickland

    228) Bison, Black Bear, Elk, Mountain Lion, Pika, Pronghorn, Red Tail Hawk

    229) Bee Hive, Big Horn Sheep, Chipmunk, Critters, Marmot, Owl, Prairie Dog, Trout

    230) Agam, Alterman, Ben Yehuda, Kadishman, Levin

    231) Bialik, Einstein, Geva, Kishon, Shemer, Spinoza

    232) Ayame, Hagi, Renge, Sakura, Tsubaki, Ume

    233) Africa, Bali, Blue, Green, Hawaii, Jamaica, Red, Tatami, Yellow

    234) Akashi, Eawase, Hanano en, Kagaribi, Kashiwagi, Kiritsubo, Kobai, Matsukaze, Niono miya, UX Lab

    235) Fumizuki, Hazuki, Kannazuki, Kisaragi, Minazuki, Mutsuki, Nagatsuki, Satsuki, Yayoi

    236) Canadian Club, Center Ice, Lake Louise, Peggy's Cove, The Lighthouse, The Stampede, Tremblant

    237) Alishan, Chitou, Dabajianshan, Eluanbi, Sun Moon Lake, Taroko, Yehliu, Yushan

    238) Bianca, Cordelia, Cressida, Ophelia

    239) The Cabinet Room, The Cloakroom, The Oval, The Rose Garden, The Secret Undisclosed Location, The Situation Room, The Smoke Filled Room, The South Lawn, The Treaty Room

    240) Asungaq, Chu, Deniigi, Kanut, Mequssuk, Nannuraluk, Nini, Ookpik, Qigiq, Tarralikitak

    241) Korniszon, Sledzik

    242) Atomek, Bolek, Filemon, Gucio, Koralgol, Krecik, Lolek, Maja, Muchomorek, Plastus, Reksio, Romek, Rumcajs, Tola, Tytus, Uszatek

    243) And, Enjoy, Share

    244) Bandura, Bleeding Gums Murphy, ENIAC, Patty, Santa's Little Helper, Selma, Sideshow Bob

    245) Chief Wiggum, Itchy, Mayor Quimby, Milhouse, Scratchy, Shelbyville, Snowball 1, Snowball 2

    246) Acapulco, Bondi, Cancun, Copacabana, Rimini, Tenerife, Waikiki

    247) Agadir, Blackpool, Cardinal, Hirnibraeu, Ipanema, Ittinger, Turbinenbraeu

    248) Calanda, Eichhof, Feldschloesschen, Hubertus, Huerlimann, Loewenbraeu, Schuetzengarten, Waedibraeu, Warteck

    249) Alaris Prime, Alderaan, Corellia, Han Solo, Kaja Sinis, Kamino, Kethor, Senali, Tilnes, Tritus, Uffel, Yoda

    250) Ando Prime, Boz Pity, Naboo, Taris, Tatooine

    251) Blueberry, Blue Chip, Blue Jeans, Blue Penguin, Blue Sky, Bluetooth, Curacao, Deep Blue, Smurf, The Blues

    252) Forest, Granny Smith, Greenfield, Greenstone, Greenwood, Greeny, Kiwi, Peas

    253) Green Card, Greenhouse, Green Keeper, Green Pepper, Green Tea, Greenwich, Grinch, Ireland, Leprechaun, Shamrock

    254) Chagall, Dali, Duerer, Kelly, Klimt, Luongo, Nikita

    255) Dodgeball, Five Ball, Oranje